Minggu, 17 April 2011

ini ada jenis-jenis text dalam bahasa inggris,
ya setidaknya mengingatkan kita nanti bentuk-bentuk text itu seperti apa

A narrative is a story that is created in a constructive format (as a work of speech, writing, song, film, television, video games, in photography or theatre) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. The word derives from the Latin verb narrare, "to recount", and is related to the adjective gnarus, "knowing" or "skilled".Ultimately its origin is found in the Proto-Indo-European root gnō-, "to know".
The word "story" may be used as a synonym of "narrative", but can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a narrative. A narrative can also be told by a character within a larger narrative. An important part of narration is the narrative mode, the set of methods used to communicate the narrative through a process called narration.
Along with exposition, argumentation and description, narration, broadly defined, is one of four rhetorical modes of discourse. More narrowly defined, it is the fiction-writing mode whereby the narrator communicates directly to the reader.
Stories are an important aspect of culture. Many works of art and most works of literature tell stories; indeed, most of the humanities involve stories. Owen Flanagan of Duke University, a leading consciousness researcher, writes that “Evidence strongly suggests that humans in all cultures come to cast their own identity in some sort of narrative form. We are inveterate storytellers” (Consciousness Reconsidered 198).
Stories are of ancient origin, existing in ancient Egyptian, ancient Greek, Chinese and Indian culture. Stories are also a ubiquitous component of human communication, used as parables and examples to illustrate points. Storytelling was probably one of the earliest forms of entertainment. Narrative may also refer to psychological processes in self-identity, memory and meaning-making

Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Complication
3. Resolution
4. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged


Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives

Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure

                                                                 3 Descriptive

Based on perception in space. Impressionistic descriptions of landscapes or persons are often to be found in narratives such as novels or short stories. Example: About fifteen miles below Monterey, on the wild coast, the Torres family had their farm, a few sloping acres above the cliff that dropped to the brown reefs and to the hissing white waters of the ocean ...
Purpose Description is used in all forms of writing to create a vivid impression of a person, place, object or event e.g. to: • describe a special place and explain why it is special • describe the most important person in your life • describe the animal's habitat in your report Descriptive writing is usually used to help a writer develop an aspect of their work, eg. to create a particular mood, atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters, places, objects etc.
Features Description is a style of writing which can be useful for a variety of purposes: • to engage a reader's attention • to create characters • to set a mood or create an atmosphere • to bring writing to life.
Language • aims to show rather than tell the reader what something/someone is like • relies on precisely chosen vocabulary with carefully chosen adjectives and adverbs. • is focused and concentrates only on the aspects that add something to the main purpose of the description. • sensory description - what is heard, seen, smelt, felt, tasted. Precise use of adjectives, similes, metaphors to create images/pictures in the mind e.g. their noses were met with the acrid smell of rotting flesh. • strong development of the experience that "puts the reader there" focuses on key details, powerful verbs and precise nouns
Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms

· Write a general statement
· It should give an outline of the aspects of the topic that you will
· write about in the report.
Body Description
Aspect 1
· describe one aspect of your topic
· each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence
Aspect 2
· describe one aspect of your topic
· each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence
Aspect 3 and so on
· describe one aspect of your topic
· each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence
This final paragraph sums up your topic.

 Text Structure
o Opening statement
- Lead in sentence to state the topic and capture interest
- may include a short description of the subject
- may include definition
- may include classification or categorisation of types

-    each paragraph is about a different aspect of the subject.
- begins with a topic or a preview sentence
- focus is on facts not opinion
- Summarises the information presented
- Does not include any new information
Language features (Grammar)
o Using General nouns (elephants, snakes, etc) technical terms
o Formal and impersonal language (avoiding first and second pronoun like I,you, instead using third pronoun like it, they)
o Uses timeless, present tense e.g. Adelaide is popular with inter
national students.
o Many “being” and “having” verbs

Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.
Generic Structure
1. General classification
2. Description
Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense

Explanation text is written to explain how or why something happens, eg how river valleys are formed or why the Romans built roads. Typically such text consists of a description of the phenomenon and an explanatory sequence. The writer will normally need to use connectives expressing cause and effect
Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.

Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

An analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case. To make the persuasion stronger, the speaker or writer gives some arguments as the fundamental reasons why something is the case. This type of text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Analytical expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of analytical exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Reiteration or conclusion.

A.Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1. Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s position;
Outlines of the arguments are presented.
2. Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration
Point,states the main argument
Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument
3. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s position

B. Generic Features of Analytical Exposition
1.                  An analytical exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants.
2.                  It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc.
3.                  It uses emotive and evaluative words
4.                  It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc.
5.                  It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense.
6.                  Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.
Now look the sample of analytical exposition below! Corruption and Indonesian Culture
Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad culture in Indonesia for three reasons

Argument 1:

Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that corruptions happen in many places. The daily newspapers, news programs on TV and radio have reported corruptions are done everywhere, almost in all departments or public services of this country. Corruptions happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to get some documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to pay. Manipulations happen everywhere

Argument 2:

The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture seems not to come to an end when the responsible institutions who have to reinforce the justice today commit corruption. This is the worst. Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges, public prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard in the end of 2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme Court, or called Mahkamah Agung which becomes the highest level where the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you have to try to come to the local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of bribery and other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that corruptions becomes our culture. Do you like it?

Argument 3:

The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They create the situations in which people have opportunities to do corruptions. The citizens like to break the rules because they are not disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ride motorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents. Then, they are caught by the local policemen. To avoid more difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. The officer let them go then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doing corruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and obey the rules, and willing to report any wrong behaviors, this country will not be number one corrupting country in the world.

Reiteration/ conclusion:

Conclusion Based on the reasons, we can conclude that corruption is becoming a bad culture in Indonesia if it is not ended soon by all of us. It seems that there must be more severe penalty for the Corruptors. Do we still care about the future of this country?

Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Reiteration/Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition

A Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or readers that something should or should not happen or be done. To strengthen the explanation, the speaker or writer needs some arguments as the fundamental reasons of the given idea. In other words, this kind of text can be called as argumentation. Hortatory exposition text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Hortatory expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of Hortatory exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Recommendation.

A.Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition

1. Thesis : Statement or announcement of issue concern
2. Arguments : Reasons for concern that will lead to recommendation
3. Recommendation : Statement of what should or should not happen or be done based on the given arguments

B.Generic Features of Hortatory Exposition

1.A Hortatory exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants, except for speaker or writer referring to self.
2.It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc.
3.It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc.
4.It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense.
5.Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.

Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation
Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition

Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of “How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done

Procedure is the set of steps which should be completed in the right sequence to get the goal. In our daily life, we often have to perform some steps to make or get something done. For example, early in the morning, you help your mother prepare cups of tea for all members of your family. In making cups of tea, you have to follow certain procedure in order to get a nice drink. Most of our daily activities are related with procedures. That is why, you should understand what a procedure text is, how to make and use it. The generic structure of procedure has three principal components namely (1) the goal, (2) materials and (3) steps.

A. Generic Structure of procedure

1. Goal : Title of the text (especially for a recipe)
2. Materials : Optional, not for all procedural texts
3. Steps : a series steps oriented to achieving the Goal

B. Generic Features
1. The use of Simple Present Tense, often in an imperative form e.g. Add some sugar, prepare it,.
2. The use mainly of temporal conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence especially in written text)

a. As the sentence introducers (sequencers) especially in spoken text:
First … Firstly …
Second … Secondly …
Then … Thirdly …
After that … Afterwards …
Finally … Lastly …
e.g. Firstly, prepare some water!

b. As time introducers, especially in written text
… before …
After …
When …
While …
… until …
During …
e.g. While you are boiling the water, grind the chilies, onions and salt
Now read this text!

How to activate a Handphone
Nowadays, we need a handphone to connect to our colleagues. We can get it easily in the shop. When we buy it we shall get a handphone, a SIM card, a battery and a charger

This is the way to activate the handphone:
· First, open the cover of the handphone
· Second, insert the SIM card after being installed
· Third, insert the battery inside
· Fourth, close the battery with a cover of handphone
· Fifth, connect the lead from the charger to the bottom of the phone.
· Sixth, connect the charger to an AC wall outlet. Charging the battery supplied with the phone may take four up to six hours.
Seventh, when the battery is fully charged, the bar stops scrolling. Disconnect the charger from the AC outlet and the phone. Then, we are ready to make a phone call.

Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely
Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms


A discussion text is a kind of text to present at least two points of view about an issue. The function is to explore various perspectives before coming to an informed decision. Besides, to present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (‘for’ points and ‘against’ points)

The structure usually consists of three components. They are:

1. Issue, an opening statement presenting the issue
2. Arguments for (pro) and arguments against (contra) or statement of different point of view about an issue (point and elaboration), and
3. Conclusion or recommendation

a discussion text focuses on generic human and generic non-human participants.

Language features:
1. The use of general nouns
e.g. abortion, formalin, alcohol, smoking, cloning etc
2. The use of relating verbs
e.g. is, am, are etc
3. The use of thinking verbs
e.g. think, feel, hope, believe etc
4. The use of additive connectives
e.g. in addition, furthermore, besides etc.
5. The use of contrastive connectives
e.g. although, even if, nevertheless etc
6. The use of causal connectives
e.g. because, because of, due to etc
7. The use of modalities
e.g. must, perhaps, should etc
8. The use of adverb of manner
e.g. hopefully, deliberately etc

Now read this example of discussion text!

The Advantages and the Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy is commonly offered as an alternative to overcome the crisis of energy. The debate of whether the use of nuclear energy is an appropriate choice has not come to an end. Some people agree with the utilization of it because of its benefits. Some others, however, disagree because of its risks to the environment.

Argument ‘pro’:
Those who agree with the operation of nuclear reactors usually argue that nuclear energy is the only feasible choice to answer the ever-increasing energy needs. In their opinion, the other sources of energy: oil, coal, and liquid natural gas are not renewable and safe, while nuclear energy can be sustainable when produced in a safe way.

Argument "contra":
However, people who disagree with the use of nuclear energy point out that the waste of nuclear products can completely destroy the environment and human lives. A meltdown in a reactor, for example, usually results in the contamination of the surrounding soil and water. Take for example, the blow up of the nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Russia twenty years ago. The serious contamination imperiled people and the environment severely.

It is obvious that nuclear energy should be avoided because it really endangers the environment but what about a less polluted energy instead of nuclear energy? Is there any alternative energy to overcome the crisis of energy?

Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)

Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner


A review text is a flexible genre which may vary according to the nature of the creative work being worked on, the intended audience, and the aspects of the work considered worth commenting on.

The purpose of review text is to analyze and evaluate some creative works, and to inform people about its strengths and weaknesses.

The basic structure of a review text consists of four parts or components, they are:

1. Title
Briefly identifies the subject of the review in some interesting way, and generally is linked to the reviewer’s name.

2. Identification of the work
The name of the creative work which is the subject of the review.
· What kind of work it is (such as film, movie, novel, research investigation, books, cassette etc)
· Its author(s), publisher or producer, and date of production. Not all these details are necessary.

3. Evaluation of the work
The reviewer describes particular aspects of the work, and offers their opinion regarding them, their quality, effectiveness, and so forth.

4. Conclusions/ recommendations
The reviewer summarizes their assessment of the value of the work, and makes recommendations regarding how others should regard the work.

Now read an example of review text of a film!

If you like a war film, "We Were Soldiers" is the film to see. It is starred by Mel Gibson and directed by Randall Wallace. Mel Gibson plays the leading role as Lieutenant Colonel Hal Moore. This film is about American heroism in Vietnam war. Lt. Col. Hal Moore leads a battalion of US army in Vietnam. Most of his troops are young men that are innocent to war. His mission is to seize a strategic valley named La Drang or the valley of death. To motivate his young troops, he said, "I swear … when we go into the battle I will be the first to step on the field and I will be the last to step off. I will leave no one behind…dead or alive. We will come home together". All the troops go to the battle with braveness. The 400 US army fight with 2000 Vietnamese soldiers. Even though he fails to take control the valley, he can show his loyalty to his country and to each other. This multi-million production has some breathtaking scenes. It is a film full of suspense. The special effects and stunts are spectacular and create an atmosphere of tension. Don’t miss watching it.

Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
dominant Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation
Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor


An anecdote is a type of spoken or written text that deals with past incidents. The function is to retell an account or story of unusual or amusing incident. The incident happened in the past. The purposes are sharing with others an usual or amusing incident and entertaining others. The generic structure of anecdote text usually has five components and one is optional: (1) Abstract, (2) Orientation, (3) Crisis, (4) Reaction and (5) Coda (optional)

A. Generic Structure of Anecdote

1. Abstract : Signals the RETELLING of an unusual or amusing incident
2. Orientation : Sets the scene
3. Crisis : Provides details of the unusual incident.
4. Reaction : Reaction to the crisis
5. Coda (optional) : Reflection on or evaluation of the incident

B. Generic Features

1. It uses exclamation, rhetorical question and intensifiers (e.g. really, very, quite etc). They are used to point up the significance of the events.
2. It usually uses Simple Past Tense.
3. Past continuous tense is sometimes used
4. Use of temporal sequencers to show the sequence of story. They are:
Before …
After …
When …
While …
… until …
During …
As …
At that time …
At that moment …
After that …
After then …
Firstly …
Secondly …
Finally …

Now read an example of anecdote below!

Guess what happened when there was fisherman who threw a big fish back into the water and keep only that small one? It is unusual incident, isn’t?

One morning, a man was crossing a narrow bridge. When he saw a fisherman under him on the shady bank of the deep smooth river he stopped to watch him quietly.

He saw that the fisherman took it off the hook and caught a big fish. But he threw it back to water. Then he put his hook and line in again. After a minute he caught rather big fish. Again, he threw it back into the river. Then the third time, he caught a small fish. He put it into his basket and started to get ready to go. The man on the bridge was very surprised, so he spoke to the fisherman. He asked why did he threw those beautiful big fishes back into the water and just kept only the small one.

The fisherman looked up and answered, “I only have a frying pan”

Oh poor fisherman!

To get better comprehension about anecdote text, here is the summary:

1. Social Function : to share with others an account of unusual, uncommon or amusing incident.

2. The text organization or generic structure of anecdote is

a. ABSTRACT : signals the retelling of unusual, uncommon or amusing incident
b. ORIENTATION : introduction or sets the scene
c. CRISIS : provides details of unusual, uncommon or amusing incident
d. INCIDENT : reaction to the CRISIS
e. CODA : (OPTIONAL), a reflection or an evaluation of unusual, uncommon or amusing incident

3. The language features of anecdote text are:
a. using exclamation (e.g great!, what a bad day!, a very strange incident! etc)
b. using of rhetorical questions (e.g what do you like to do when you make wrong thing? , oh no, it is a stupid thing, isn’t?)
c. using intensifiers (e.g very, so + adjective , much etc)
d. using material processes (e.g protected, employed, spoke etc)
e. using temporal conjunctions (e.g then, afterwards, ever since, while, before, after etc).
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident
Generic Structure:
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Reaction
5. Coda.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers
2. Using material process
3. Using temporal conjunctions


Spoof has a social function. It retells an event with a humorous twist.

The generic (schematic) structure of a spoof text is below:

1. Orientation : sets the scene
2. Event(s) : tell what happened
3. Twist : provide the punch line

language features:
· focus on individual participants
· use of material processes
· circumstances of time and place
· use of past tense

Material processes are verbs that show activities which can be seen, e.g. write, eat, walk etc
Material processes consist of DOING and HAPPENING.
DOING : create, make, build, develop, send, throw, strew, pour, dissolve etc
HAPPENING : move, fall, rise, come, go, soften, harden, melt etc

See the example of a spoof text below:

The plane was late and detectives waited at the airport all morning. They expected a valuable parcel of diamonds from South Africa. A few hours earlier, someone had told the police that thieves would try to steal the diamonds. When the plane arrived some of detectives waited inside the main building while others waited on the airfield. Two men took the parcel off the plane and carried into the Custom House. While two detectives kept guard at the door, two others opened the parcel. To their surprise, the precious parcel was full of stones and sand!

Read the other example of spoof text!

Green, Pink and Yellow

Can you name the colors in English? Yes, you are right. They are blue, red, yellow, green, white, brown, purple, black and so on. I have a funny story about the colours. Do you want to know it? ok let me tell you.

One day, an English teacher talked about colours to his students. After he had been explaining, he asked his students, “Who can make a sentence using the word, Green, Pink and Yellow?”
James, the smartest student in the class quickly raised his hand and answered, “When the yellow morning Sun comes, I see a beautiful girl wearing a pink clothe walking through the green grass”.
“Excellent. James, you are a very good student” the teacher said.

“Me, me Sir”. Johny, the lazy student in the class said while raising his hand. And then he said, “I heard telephone ringing green, green, then I pink up the receiver and I said, “Yellow, who is speaking there?

Now read again the concept of spoof text!

Purpose : to tell an event with a humorous twist
Text organization
orientation : (who were involved in the story, when, and where)
Events : (tell what happened in chronological order)
Twist : (provide the funniest part of the story)

Language features:
· The use of action verbs
(e.g. walked, laughed, ran away etc)
· The use of connectives
(e.g. first. Then, finally etc)
· The use of adverbial phrases of time and place
(e.g. in the garden, two days ago)
· The use of the simple past tense
(e.g. he walked away from the village)

Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Twist
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged


News Item is used to inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. We often find it in a newspaper because the passage often tells the readers about great, important, interesting, tragic, entertaining or fresh incident or events that all people should know about it

Study the notes on news item below!

Social function/ aim or purpose of the text:
To inform the readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.

Generic structure:
· Newsworthy event(s): recount the event in summary form
· Background event(s): elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances
· Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event

Significant language features:
· Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
· Uses of material processes to retell the event. (mental process is ….)
· Use of projecting verbal process in sources stage
· Focus on circumstances

Now read the example of news item text!
Jakarta: the spreading of Lapindo hot mudflow post explosion of Pertamina’s gas pipe forced the residents of Kedungbendo and Renokenongo villages to evacuate.

The mudflow also flooded half of the Tanggulangin anggun Sejahtera housing complex in Sidoarjo. Mudflow of more than half a meter in depth flooded 66, 0448 houses in this complex.

“The residents were evacuate to Pasar baru, which was previously a shelter for 2, 605 families whose houses were flooded by mudflows”, said Syaiful Illah, a deputy regent of Sidoarjo, yesterday (16 november 2006)

From Tempo’s monitoring, the refugees came continuously by trucks, public transportations and motorcycles. They straightaway occupied the market, kiosks and stalls by spreading out mats and pillow for sleeping.

Government officials appeared to be busy preparing mass kitchens and supplying rice, instant noodles, cooking oil and other needs. “We took the food from Sidoarjo Social Service”, said Syaiful Illah. “There hasn’t been any aid provided by Lapindo”. In the mean time, the National team for mudflow relief in Sidoarjo has not been able to block mudflow in the gas pipe explosion

Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Background event(s)
3. Sources
Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.

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