Selasa, 06 November 2012

Narrative-recount-news item-procedure-descriptive text

Narrative Text

Disebutkan bahwa A narrative text is an imaginative story to entertain people (teks narasi adalah cerita imaginatif yang bertujuan menghibur orang).

Jika melihat pada kamus bahasa Inggris, secara harfiah narrative bermakna (1) a spoken or written account of connected events; a story. (2) the narrated part of a literary work, as distinct from dialogue. (3) the practice or art of narration.

(Narrative bermakna : 1. sebuah cerita baik terucap atau tertulis tentang peristiwa-peristiwa yang berhubungan. 2. bagian yang diceritakan dalam sebuah karya sastra, berbeda dengan dialog. 3. Praktik atau seni bercerita)
Kind of Narrative Story
A narrative is a story that is created in constructive form. A narrative is commonly found in fiction. That is why we often see a narrative as a story.
There are several kinds of narrative form. The types of narratives are:
A. fable
B. myths
C. legend
D. fairytales
E. science fiction story
F. short stories
G. parables
H. novels
I. horror story

Generic Structure dari Narrative Text

penjelasan mengenai narrative texts tak begitu sulit. Intinya, narrative text ini mempunyai struktur / susunan seperti di bawah ini :
    Orientation : It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are introduced.(berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa, kapan dan dimana)

    Complication : Where the problems in the story developed. (Permasalahan muncul / mulai terjadi dan berkembang)

    Resolution : Where the problems in the story is solved. Masalah selesai, --- secara baik "happy ending" ataupun buruk "bad ending".

Recount text

Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives

Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure


Procedure is the set of steps which should be completed in the right sequence to get the goal. In our daily life, we often have to perform some steps to make or get something done. For example, early in the morning, you help your mother prepare cups of tea for all members of your family. In making cups of tea, you have to follow certain procedure in order to get a nice drink. Most of our daily activities are related with procedures. That is why, you should understand what a procedure text is, how to make and use it. The generic structure of procedure has three principal components namely (1) the goal, (2) materials and (3) steps.

A. Generic Structure of procedure

1. Goal : Title of the text (especially for a recipe)
2. Materials : Optional, not for all procedural texts
3. Steps : a series steps oriented to achieving the Goal

B. Generic Features
1. The use of Simple Present Tense, often in an imperative form e.g. Add some sugar, prepare it,.
2. The use mainly of temporal conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence especially in written text)


News Item is used to inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. We often find it in a newspaper because the passage often tells the readers about great, important, interesting, tragic, entertaining or fresh incident or events that all people should know about it

Study the notes on news item below!

Social function/ aim or purpose of the text:
To inform the readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.

Generic structure:
· Newsworthy event(s): recount the event in summary form
· Background event(s): elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances
· Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event

Significant language features:
· Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
· Uses of material processes to retell the event. (mental process is ….)
· Use of projecting verbal process in sources stage
· Focus on circumstances


Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms

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